The Clemson Catechism was a brochure produced by Walter Merritt Riggs in 1910 and officially titled "Questions and Answers Relating to Clemson College - 1910." At least two editions were printed, the first dated June 22, 1910, and a revised and enlarged edition dated December 12, 1910.
(Cover): QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELATING TO CLEMSON COLLEGE - 1910
SECOND EDITION - REVISED AND ENLARGED.
(Title page): QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELATING TO CLEMSON COLLEGE - 1910
SECOND EDITION - REVISED AND ENLARGED
CLEMSON COLLEGE PRINT - 1910
- It is with the honest purpose of giving accurate information to our people in regard to Clemson College that this little pamphlet is prepared.
- It is intended primarily for the students and patrons of the College but will be sent to any one upon request.
- Wherever possible, the answers are based upon the law and records, and the accuracy of all such is vouched for. Wherever an answer is in the form of an opinion, it is merely the personal opinion of the writer. Neither the Faculty nor the Board has had any part in the preparation of this pamphlet, and they are in no way responsible for its contents.
- W. M. RIGGS
Clemson College, S. C.
- June 22, 1910
Revised Dec. 12, 1910
Location, Name and Origin........ 5
Board of Trustees..................... 9
Tag Tax on Fertilizer................22
Income and Expenditures.........28
Increase in the Fertilizer Tax.....32
Inspection and Analysis of
- Fertilizers ..................42
- Fertilizers ..................42
LOCATION, NAME AND ORIGIN.
1. Where is Clemson College located?
- In the extreme western part of the State, in Oconee County.
2. How is it reached?
- From the Southern Railway station, Calhoun, two-thirds of a mile north of the College, and from the Blue Ridge Railway station, Cherrys, two miles to the south of the College.
3. What is the official name of Clemson College?
- "The Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina."
4. How did the College get the name of "Clemson?"
- Thomas G. Clemson died in 1888, and left the Fort Hill estate of 836 acres and about $58,000 in money to found an Agricultural and Mechanical College.
5. Who was Thomas G. Clemson?
- He was a Pennsylvanian, born in Philadelphia in 1807. At the age of sixteen he ran away from home, and
- went to France. There he engaged in the Revolutions of that time, and after winning distinction, entered the celebrated School of Mines at Paris, graduating after four years as a Mining Engineer. He returned to America, and establishing himself in Washington, practiced his profession, and accumulated a considerable fortune. Here he met and married Miss Anna Marie, the oldest daughter of John C. Calhoun.
6. What part did Thomas G. Clemson have in the War Between the States?
- Being a strong disciple of John C. Calhoun, and hearing that he was to be arrested, Mr. Clemson with his son fled from Washington, and walking to Richmond, offered their services to President Davis. Mr. Clemson was assigned to the Trans-Mississippi Nitre Mining Department, where he served until the end of the war, and his son, John C. Clemson, was appointed a Lieutenant and assigned to active duty.
7. How did Clemson come into
possession of the old homestead of John C. Calhoun, which he afterwards bequeathed to the State?
- A full account will be found in the College catalogue, pages 17-22. Briefly, the Fort Hill place was given to John C. Calhoun by the two brothers of his wife. The property descended to his wife at his death, friends in Charleston having paid off large indebtedness in order that she might have a clear title. The place finally came into possession of Mrs. Clemson, who, upon her death, bequeathed it to her husband, "absolutely and in fee simple." When Mr. Clemson died, the property under his will went to the State to found the Clemson Agricultural College, and by the same will, he set aside $15,000 for his grand-daughter to satisfy any claim in equity which she might have in the property. She had no legal claim.
8. Why was not the College named after John C. Calhoun?
- Because he had absolutely nothing to do with donating any property to
- the State for the purpose of founding the College. Nowhere does it appear that he ever harbored in the remotest way any such intention.
9. But were there no sentimental reasons why he should have named the College after Calhoun?
- Yes, and he first intended to do so. However, his legal adviser, and friend, R. W. Simpson, dissuaded him from such a course, because he felt that in justice to Mr. Clemson, the College should bear his name.
10. Did Mr. Clemson for any length of time before his death contemplate the founding of the College?
- His writings, the records of the old Pendleton's Farmers Society and his last will and testament show conclusively that for twenty-five years he was interested in Agricultural education, and that the founding of the College had become the "one great desire" of his life.
11. What were the provisions of the Clemson will?
- After donating the bulk of his
- property to the State, the will set forth that the College was to be governed by seven self-perpetuating life Trustees, and six others elected by the State, and that the State was to provide for the support of the College.
THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES
12. Did the State of South Carolina accept the terms of the will?
- Yes, in 1889 the Legislature accepted the terms of Mr. Clemson's will. They stipulated in the acceptance that it should require a two-thirds vote of the Board of Trustees to authorize the expenditure of any money.
13. How many votes does it require to elect an officer?
- One of the By-Laws of the Board is that it requires nine votes to elect an officer.
14. How then can the seven life members dominate the Board, as has been charged.
- They have absolutely no power to
- do so, since in all important matters nine affirmative votes are required.
15. Do you mean to say that the balance of power lies absolutely in the hands of the six Trustees elected by the Legislature?
- Absolutely. They can prevent any election or appropriation of money if they so desire.
16. Is there any division in the Board along the line of life and State Trusteeship?
- I do not believe that a member of the Board can recall a single instance where such a division has been made in the entire history of the College.
17. Who are the Life Trustees?
- Hon. Alan Johnstone, of Newberry.
- Hon. R. W. Simpson, of Pendleton.
- Senator B. R. Tillman, of Trenton.
- Hon. M. L. Donaldson, of Greenville.
- Hon. J. E. Wannamaker, of St. Matthews.
- Hon. W. W. Bradley, of Abbeville.
- Hon. R. I. Manning, of Sumter.
17a. Who are the State Trustees?
- Hon. W. D. Evans, of Cheraw.
- Hon. B. H. Rawl, of Lexington.
- Hon. Ivy M. Mauldin, of Pickens.
- (*)Hon. Jesse H. Hardin, of Chester.
- Hon. John G. Richards, Jr., of Liberty Hill.
- Hon. Coke D. Mann, of West Union.
18. Do the Trustees receive any pay for their services?
- None whatever.
19. What Life Trustees have been elected by the survivors to fill vacancies caused by death?
- Mr. Alan Johnstone, of Newberry; Mr. W. W. Bradley, of Abbeville, and Mr. Richard I. Manning, of Sumter.
20. Who is President of the Board?
- State Senator Alan Johnstone, of Newberry, S. C.
21. How can he and Senator Tillman be Trustees and State officers at the same time? Does not the State law forbid holding two offices of honor and profit at the same time?
- Yes, but the Constitution of the State also declares that no State of-
- ficer can hold his position for life, but must be periodically elected. Therefore, a Life Trusteeship cannot be considered a State Office.
22. But did not the General Assembly elect some of its own members to positions on the Clemson Board? Is that legal?
- The General Assembly represents the people of South Carolina and from their action it is evident that they do not consider a College Trusteeship as a State office. If it were so regarded, then the Governor of the State and the State Superintendent of Education would be debarred from membership on the Winthrop and the University Boards.
23. Would there be any advantage in abolishing the Life Trustees and electing the entire thirteen?
- What practical good could result? Are not the Life Trustees just as able and conscientious, and just as loyal citizens and servants of South Carolina as are the six elected Trustees. Mr. Johnstone was once a State Trustee.
- Does a mere change in the method of his election unfit him for the duties which he once satisfactorily discharged as a State Trustee? On the contrary, is it not to the advantage of the College to have a Governing Board with fixity of purpose such as cannot be assured when all members of the Board are elective officers?
The College Work
24. How many sessions has Clemson been in operation?
- Seventeen sessions.
25. What has been the enrollment during that period?
- Nine thousand two hundred and fifty-eight, an average of 545 per session.
26. How many boys have graduated from Clemson?
- Six hundred and seventy-nine, including the last graduating class. Of this number, 251 have graduated in the Agricultural Courses, and 428 in the Engineering and Textile Courses. For this session the student body is about equally divided between the
- Agricultural courses, and all the other courses combined.
27. Do the Agricultural graduates go back to the farm?
- Some do, who have farms to go back to, but a large number of them become teachers of Agriculture and workers in the Agricultural uplift field in this and other States. Agriculture is growing so fast that the demand for trained teachers is greater than the supply.
28. Should every student who goes to Clemson take an Agricultural Course?
- Of course not. If he has no talent for farming and no opportunities in that line, and has talent for Engineering or Textile work, he should be afforded an opportunity to develop himself along the line of his greatest powers. Is it not a greater benefit to the parent to prepare his son for a successful career as an Engineer than to force him into a line for which perhaps he has no talent or inclination?
29. What becomes of the Engin-
eering and Textile graduates?
- Most of them go to the great manufacturing centers and there learn the details of their profession.
30. Do they return to their native State?
- The electric properties in Orangeburg, Newberry, Spartanburg, Union, St. Matthews, Conway, and other towns are in charge of Clemson graduates. About 75 per cent of the Textile graduates are at work in South Carolina, and some of them are near the top of the profession.
31. What becomes of the large number who do not graduate?
- After one or two years work spent at Clemson, they go back to be citizens of South Carolina, taking with them their greater knowledge of the sciences that underlie Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.
32. What per cent of the students pay tuition?
- Only about 10 per cent.
33. Who decides whether or not a student shall get free tuition? Do the College authorities decide this?
- No; the law puts the decision in the hands of the County Auditor.
34. How many free scholarships are offered by Clemson College?
- 167 - one for each representative from the County to the General Assembly.
35. How much are these scholarships worth?
- $100.00, and free tuition, worth $40. more.
36. Does the State Legislature make an appropriation to pay for these scholarships as they do for the scholarships at the Citadel, Winthrop, and the University?
- No; the entire amount, about $17,000, comes out of the current funds of the College.
37. How are these scholarships awarded?
- The college faculty makes out the examination, the County Board of Eduction holds the examination, and sends the papers back to the Clemson faculty to grade. The law requires a grade of 60% in order to pass. All who make that grade are
- reported to the County Superintendent of Education as having passed. The County Board makes a recommendation to the State Board of Education, and this Board announces the award.
38. Is the Clemson faculty in any way responsible if the scholarships sometimes go to boys who are well able to pay their way through College?
- The faculty knows nothing of the need of the applicants. They merely grade the papers and send the results to the County Superintendent of Education. The County Board alone is responsible, because the State Board, under the law, is compelled to act upon the recommendation of the County Board.
39. What courses are scholarship students required to take?
- They are required to take Agricultural Courses, excepting one student only from each County who may take the Textile Course. None are allowed to take the Engineering Courses.
40. What measures are taken to surround the students with proper religious influences?
- The Trustees appropriate $3,000 annually for religious service and instruction. Four resident ministers of the Baptist, Episcopal, Metyhodist and Presbyterian denominations receive $500 each for preaching in the College chapel, conducting morning services, and doing pastoral work among the students. $500.00 is appropriated to bring to Clemson ministers of Protestant denominations not represented by the resident ministers, and $500 is contributed to the salary of the student Y. M. C. A. Secretary, who lives in Barracks and works among the students.
41. How many students were enrolled in the Y. M. C. A., Bible Study Classes, and Sunday School last session?
- Of the total enrollment of 653, 338 enrolled in the Bible Study Classes, 266 belonged to the Y. M. C. A., and an equally large number to the Sunday School.
42. How does Clemson rank as a College?
- Clemson College is regarded by those in a position to judge, as one of the great Agricultural Colleges in the South. It has a larger percentage of students taking the Agricultural Courses than any other Agricultural and Mechanical College in the United States. Its entrance requirements in the subjects taught are the same as those of the University, the Citadel, and other Colleges of the State.
43. How large is the faculty of Clemson?
- There are fifty-two teachers, and in addition thirty-six salaried officers and employees, including the Experiment Station workers.
44. The charge was made to the last Legislature that relatives of the Trustees are elected as teachers and officers at Clemson.
- It is a fact that Clemson has on its faculty and among its officers men who are related to its Trustees. Perhaps it is thought in some quar-
- ters that the relationship unfits them for the usual rights and priviledges of citizenship, but you do not think so, do you?
45. No; but what is the explanation of the situation?
- Of the ten officers and teachers named in the report as being related to members of the Board, two of them became related by marriage several years after their election. Two were elected upon the recommendation of Dr. Hartzog, and one was appointed outright by him. One was elected upon the recommendation of Pres. Mell, and three were appointed by him between Board meetings, their appointments being later confirmed by the Board. One, an assistant book-keeper, was nominated by a member of the Finance Committee not related to him and elected without objection on the part of the President.
- One of the ten, who was originally appointed by the President, was promoted to a position in the Experiment Station, in the face of the President's
- recommendation of another party. This person was, however, recommended by the head of the Department concerned, although at a salary less than that given him at election.
46. It would seem from the above statement that if nepotism exists at Clemson, it is the result of the official acts of the last two Presidents.
- The record has been cited, - it is for you to draw your own conclusions.
47. What about the ability of these relatives to properly perform their duties?
- It would appear that they are doing satisfactory work. There is nothing on the records to show that their sevices have not been satisfactory.
48. Would it not have been well if all the facts could have been laid before the Legislative Committee before they made their report?
- They had presented to them all the facts that are here related.
49. Why then did they not give both sides and let the people judge?
- That is a question which you will
- have to ask the Committee. I cannot answer it for them.
THE TAG TAX ON FERTILIZERS.
50. How is Clemson College supported?
- By the interest on the Clemson bequest, by moneys received from the U. S. Government, from a small amount received from tuition fees, but principally from the Inspection Tax on Fertilizers.
51. Does not the Legislature appropriate money for the support of the College.
- Since 1894, sixteen years ago, the Legislature of South Carolina has not been asked for, nor has it given, one dollar to Clemson's support.
52. How does the College come by the Fertilizer Tax?
- When the advocates of Agricultural education were conducting a campaign for an Agricultural College, they promised the farmers if they would vote to give the College the 25 cents per ton tax on all fertilizers
- sold in the State, they would not only inspect and analyze the feretilizers, but would build and maintain the College as well.
53. Have the Trustees kept this promise?
- The College has just closed its seventeenth session, with a graduating class of 77.-33 in the Agricultural Courses, and 44 in the Engineering and Textile Courses. Not only has the College been operated successfully during these seventeen sessions, but out of its current income the Trustees have added nearly $1,000,000 in lands and building to the State's assets.
54. Who pays the Fertilizer Tax, - the farmers or the manufacturers?
- In its last analysis, the consumers usually pay all the cost of manufacturing and marketing an article, but it is entirely possible in this particular case that the farmers of other States pay as much to Clemson's support as do the farmers of South Carolina - if the farmers pay at all.
55. How can that be?
- Suppose a fertilizer manufacturer made one million tons of fertilizer, and sold half in South Carolina where the tax is 25 cents per ton, and say half in North Carolina, where, let us assume, there is no tax. Since fertilizers are sold in different States at the same prices, barring difference in freight rates and competitive conditions, the manufacturer would add to the cost of making the million tons of fertilizer, $125,000. This is what 25 cents per ton on half of his product would amount to. If, then, he sells half in South Carolina and half in North Carolina at the same F. O. B. factory price, it is evident that the South Carolina farmers would be paying $62,500 and the North Carolina farmers $62,500 to Clemson. The 25 cents a ton would be equally distributed over the two States, and over the entire output.
56. Would abolition of the tax reduce the price of fertilizers to farmers?
- I do not believe that it would. The price of fertilizers varies from year
- to year, depending not only upon the cost of manufacture, but upon the general condition of the country, and upon competitive conditions as well. How could the farmers tell whether or not they were getting a 25c. per ton reduction when the price varies from one season to another, often as much as $5.00 per ton?
57. Do the farmers get anything in return for the 25 cents tax which they pay?
- Indeed they do. If it were not for the Inspection and Analysis, they would pay for an inferior article that could not be disposed of in States having an Inspection Law.
(*)58. Do the chemists who analyze the fertilizers find many fertilizers that do not come up to the guarantee?
- No. A manufacturer cannot afford to be detected and advertised, hence the standard of the goods sold to the farmers of South Carolina is usually kept up to the guarantee.
59. Do the manufacturers complain
(*)See appendix, page 43.
of the tag tax?
- No. I do not doubt but that all of them are in favor of it. Certainly reputable companies who would have to compete against dishonest competitors favor it.
60. What objection is there to putting the tax in the State Treasury, and letting the Legislature make Clemson a definite appropriation and use the balance for other purposes?
- A special commodity tax cannot be levied except for inspection purposes. For example, you could not tax fertilizers to run the State Government or the Public Schools, because neither the State Government nor the Public Schools make the analysis. The Act sets forth that the tax is to be used for the purpose of inspection, not to run the College. The Supreme Court has decided in another State where the question has come up, that an exact balance between the cost of inspection and the revenue from the tax cannot be required so long as the beneficiary of the tax performs the inspection and analysis. Such being
- the case, and with the knowledge and consent of the farmers of the State, the College is to a large measure supported by what is left over and above the cost of making the inspection and analysis.
- Now, if the act legalizing the fertilizer tax set forth that the tax was to be used for running the State Government or supporting High Schools, or anything other than for inspection, don't you see it would be unconstitutional on its face, and the Supreme Court, as in the North Carolina case, where part of the tax was used for the benefit of the common schools, would so declare.
62. What then would result?
- If the fertilizer tax was abolished, it would mean practically the ruin of a great Agricultural College, because the tag tax is the principal source of its support.
63. Do those who advocate some other use for the tax know that Clemson will lose at all is a law were passed requiring part of it to be used
for High School purposes?
- Very likely some know it, and advocate the diversion for the very purpose of injuring the College. Others have never had this phase of the question brought to their attention, and believe honestly that some of Clemson's revenue should be used in the ways suggested.
INCOME AND EXPENDITURES.
64. What was Clemson's income for the last fiscal year?
Tag Tax on Fertilizers.................$ 226,980.96
Interest on Clemson Bequest.............3,512.36
Interest of Landscript Fund (U. S.)......5,754.00
Morrill & Nelson Funds (U. S.)..........20,000.00
Tuition from Cadets............................2,470.00
Miscellaneous (sales, interests, etc.).10,492.61
Experiment Station Income, (U. S.)..33,400.52
Total income..............................$ 302,610.45
65. How was this large sum expended?
- It was expended as follows:
For Public Work.............................$ 98,075.44
For Operating College..................... 133,687.15
For Shop and Laboratory Equipment.....9,974.34
For Permanent Improvements............ 18,859.83
For Deficit on Cadet Fund................... 6,503.54
- Total Expenditures................... 267,100.30
66. Explain in detail what is meant by the Public Work, which amounts to over $98,000.
- The Public Work consists of the work required by the State laws and by the United States Government law, and includes also a large amount
- of Agricultural benefaction work undertaken by the Board of Trustees on their own initiative. The following is in detail the expenditure for Public Work:
- Expended for Public Work
For Fertilizer Inspection and Analysis.... $ 24,253.40
For Agricultural and Textile Scholarships...17,222.06
For Coast Experiment Station................... 8,145.00
For Tick Eradication..................................8,166.00
For Veterinary Inspection...........................1,686.80
For Entomological Inspection......................1,513.50
For Extension Work and Farmers' Institutes.4,413.45
Miscellaneous Travel..................................... 56.75
- Total for Public Work...................... $ 98,075.44
67. Why is there a deficit in boarding the Cadets?
- The price of provisions and everything which enters into the cost of
- living has materially advanced.
68. Have the Trustees raised the price of board so as not to have this deficit in the future?
- No. At the March meeting, the Trustees, after discussing the matter very fully, decided not to raise the price of board, believing that in such raise, many a needy boy would be deprived of getting an education. However, they hope that with an increased number of students, and the practicing of every possible economy, that at the present rate the dormitories may be made self-supporting.
69. Your figures would seem to show that on the basis of a College, and not counting its outside work, Clemson costs only a little over $133,600 to operate. What is the cost to the State per student?
- On the basis of last session's attendence (653 men) the cost to the State per student was only $204.63, which is not high compared with many technical colleges in the U. S.
70. What is the cost to the parent?
- The average cost to the parent, in-
- cluding board, heat, light, water, laundry, uniforms, and all necessary books, etc., is approximately $140.00 per session for students who do not pay tuition, and $40.00 additional for those who do pay tuition. The only other necessary expense is railroad fare, which of course cannot be set down with any accuracy.
INCREASE IN THE FERTILIZER TAX
71. The Fertilizer Tax for last year was about $50,000 more than for the year before. What did the Trustees do with the increase?
- The Public Work already enumerated was continued and extended. We have organized a Co-operative Association, the College furnishing the seeds and in some cases fertilizers and giving the necessary expert supervision to the end that tests made on the Experiment Station at Clemson may be repeated on hundreds of farms in South Carolina under every variety of soil and climate.
72. What is this co-operative work likely to accomplish?
- To illustrate. In the matters of fertilizer alone, the farmers can be saved millions of dollars by knowing just what fertilizers are needed for certain soils. In some sections of the State, potash is being used where none is necessary. In other sections, lime is being used to no purpose. In others, more phosphoric acid is needed, etc.
73. Does this work cost $50,000?
- No; only a small part of that amount. But in addition to this experimental work, we held 100 farmers' institutes during the summer, we put a live stock expert in the field, to go from one section to another to stimulate the live stock industry in this State, and we aided in teaching Agriculture in the Rural Schools by sending an expert in this line to visit the schools and assist at County, and State Teachers' Institutes. We are organizing a correspondence course with the farmers, and in other similar ways, we are helping them to be
- better farmers and better citizens.
74. Will the work you have enumerated require the $50,000?
- No: while we are vworking among the farmers of the State, we must not forget their sons who are here to study Agriculture and allied subjects. Clemson has had to begin in the woods and build a city, has had to erect College buildings for teaching, homes for its teachers and officers to live in, its own water and electric light system, etc. It has by no means finished building yet. At least twenty more residences must be built to house its faculty, and a most pressing need was a Dairy Barn, and a new up-to-date Dairy, and more arable land. The last three have been provided for.
75. Has not the College enough land already?
- Yes, enough land, but not enough arable land. Clemson College lies at the foot-hills of the mountains, and has only 330 acres of really arable land. Its hills are barren and washed. They need more animal matter to
- make them fertile and productive. At present, the acreage of arable land limits the size of our herds, and improvement on our hill land has been slight, if not imperceptible. The College is going to buy the adjoining bottom land having about 220 acres, and near this bottom land will build a model Animal Husbandry Division.
76. What will this Animal Husbandry Division cost?
- In the end, probably about $50,000, but $10,000 will be necessary to make a start.
- All of course cannot be done at once.
77. Will dairy animals be the only kind raised?
- No: the idea is to eventually raise fine breeds of hogs, horses, sheep, goats, and beef animals as well as dairy animals, so that at small cost the farmers of the State can get the best stock from Clemson.
78. What is the new Dairy building needed for?
- Clemson expects to add to its regular courses short winter and summer courses of from two to six
- weeks for the farmers, and it is as much for their instruction as for the students that a larger and moree modern building is needed. Our present Dairy is a little old single-story wooden affair, about 30 feet square totally unsuited to meet our present needs or to illustrate modern methods.
79. What will the new Dairy building cost?
- Complete, it will probably cost at least $20,000.
80. From what you say, it seems that Clemson hasn't enough money to do what is immediately in prospect.
- That is true. We could use $100,000 more than we will get. We need badly a Library and Gymnasium building.
81. Have these plans for enlargement been made public?
- Yes, time and again.
82. Will not the increase in lands, barns, etc., involve the State in greater expense to maintain the College?
On the contrary, they will, by increasing the size of our farming and dairy interests, make these enterprises more nearly self-supporting and perhaps profitable, whereas now, on account of their size, they are run at a loss.
83. But suppose the tax continues to increase. What then?
- Enlarge the College until every boy in South Carolina who wishes an education such as we give can get it. At present the maximum capacity of the College is about 650 boys. It could easily grow to 1,000 in the next five years if increased dormitory and other facilities were provided. Work for the benefit of the people could also be indefinitely expanded.
84. Would the public schools be materially helped if they could get a part of the tag tax?
- No: the public schools cost nearly $1,900,000 per year to support; and even if half of Clemson's income from the tag tax were given to the schools, it would not enable them to operate on an average one
- week longer.
85. Would it be wise to spend the money to maintain Agricultural High Schools in different sections of the State?
- I do not think so. Agriculture should be taught in all the schools, rural, elementary and high schools. No school, regardless of its name, can afford to neglect the teaching of the "three R's." Hence an "Agricultural High School" would be nothing more than an ordinary high school with the subject of Agriculture added to the course. We are hardly able to properly maintain one system of schools now.
86. Does not the State Law now favor the teaching of Agriculture in the schools?
- Yes, and when taught in hundreds of schools that are in reach of every boy and girl in the State, we will get maximum results at a minimum of cost.
87. Would a few Agricultural Schools located in different parts of the State be any more accessible to
the people as a whole, or any less costly per student than at Clemson itself?
- No. If a boy has to leave home and board at a High School in order to study Agriculture he might as well go to an Agricultural College where there are better facilities for teaching than is possible at any High School.
88. Do you feel that the future of Clemson is assured, -- that the people will stand by it?
- Clemson has not yet done all for South Carolina that perhaps it should have done, and certainly not all that it intends to do. But Clemson College, is yet a young institution. It is going to be dear to the people because it is going to be increasingly helpful to them. It will in time touch every phase of their life. It will be the enter from which will radiate energy and help. Allied with all other forces which are work-
- ing for the upbuilding of the State, it will aspire to be a leader, and every year will find it a greater institution because a better servant of the people.
- But to attain properly to a full measure of success, sympathetic cooperation on the part of the old students of Clemson, the Press and the friends of Agricultural and Industrial Education everywhere is needed. Unfair and uninformed criticism, destructive rather than constructive, can only injure the College and retard, though not destroy, its progress. The College is a State institution, and must be, and should be, accountable to the people. It has no right to resent just criticism of any feature of its management, and does not. At the same time, it should be given fair treatment; credit for what it is attempting to do for the welfare of the State. The College fears nothing, from an honest investigation, however searching.
- The Agricultural people of South
- Carolina are entitled to have a College, second to none in the State, -- a College of which they can justly be proud, because it is distinctly the institution of their profession, and they are paying for it. Its doors are open to the sons of lawyers, editors, preachers and men of all other professions. None of these pay one cent to its support, and yet criticism comes oftenest, not from the farmers, but from the class who enjoy the benefits offered by the College and who are very welcome, but who bear no part of its financial burden.
- Clemson College offers to the poor boy of South Carolina an opportunity to enjoy some of the good things of life. It provides a way by which, if he have the capacity for knowledge, he need not die in ignorance.
- The best evidence of Clemson's position in the esteem of the people who support it is the increasingly large number of young men who seek education here. The enrollment
- for the present session will probably go over the 700 mark, -- the largest in its history.
- The College has just now reached that point in its development where it can give the largest and best service, and despite temporary set backs, occasional injustice and misrepresentation, it will speedily attain to that great future which the people of South Carolina have a right to expect of it.
METHOD OF INSPECTION AND ANALYSIS.
89. Who makes the laws specifying how the fertilizer samples shall be drawn? Does the College make them?
- No; the General Assembly of South Carolina makes the laws governing this matter. The College authorities simply obey them.
90. How many kinds of fertilizer samples can be drawn?
- Two kinds of samples can be tak-
- en, --namely, "official samples" drawn by the College inspectors, and "farmers' samples" that may be drawn by any purchaser in a manner prescribed by law.
91. How are the "official samples" drawn?
- The State is divided into fourteen districts, with an inspector to each district. This inspector is instructed to visit frequently shipping points, cross roads, etc. Whenever he finds a lot of fertilizer he is instructed to take a sample from one out of every ten sacks if there are more than ten, and from every sack if less than ten. These samples are thoroughly mixed together and a 32-ounce bottle filled with the mixture. This bottle is sealed and numbered in the presence of a witness, who unites with the inspector in an affidavit to the effect that the sample is a fair and representative one, and drawn in accordance with the law.
92. What becomes of this sample?
- It is sent to the Fertilizer Inspection Department of Clemson Col-
- lege. This Department is in the immediate charge of Mr. H. M. Stackhouse, who works under the supervision of the Fertilizer Board of Control, consisting of Messrs. W. D. Evans, John G. Richards, and Richard I. Manning.
93. How is the analysis made?
- Samples are sent by number only to the Chemical Department where skilled chemists are told to look for the ingredients claimed by the manufacturer. The name of the manufacturer and the amount of each ingredient is not known to the chemists.
94. Why is it necessary to tell him what ingredients to look for?
- Because different experts make analyses for the different ingredients. If the fertilizer contains only phosphoric acid, it is sent to the room where the analysis for that material is made by an expert who gives his time pricipally to this one line of work. If it contains potash, it is sent to a different room and a different chemist, etc. If the chemists were not told what ingredients are
- claimed by the manufacturer, every sample would have to be analyzed for all possible elements, this, for no good reason, delaying the work and increasing the cost.
95. Did you say that the chemist has no idea whose goods he is analyzing, and what amount of each ingredient is claimed by the manufacturer?
- He has no information whatever along these lines.
96. What record is made of the analyses?
- The Chief Chemist sends the analyses to Mr. Stackhouse, the Secretary of the Fertilizer Board of Control, who compares them with the guarantee of the manufacturer sent him by his inspector.
- The analyses are published, and every manufacturer whose goods fall below the limit prescribed by law, (3%) has his name published in capital letters with black index hand pointing to it.
97. What penalty is inflicted upon manufacturers whose fertilizers fall
below the guarantee?
- The manufacturer is subject to prosecution, and is required to pay to the farmer the difference between the value of the fertilizer as shown by analysis, and the value as shown by his guarantee.
98. Are these rebates ever collected?
- Yes; last season over forty claims were made and collected.
99. Why does the Secretary of the Fertilizer Department have to have the name of the manufacturer before the analysis is made?
- Because he would be unable to publish the results for the benefit of the people of the State if he did not have that information. The analyses would be of use only to the sender of the sample.
100. How are "farmers' samples" drawn?
- The law prescribes that any puchaser of fertilizers may take a sample within fifteen days after delivery, and in the same way that an inspector does, the drawing to be
- made in the presence of two witnesses, one chosen by the buyer, and one by the seller. The seller must have six days' notice. The sample must be sealed in the presence of a third disinterested witness, and the three must sign a certificate that accompanies the sample to Clemson College. The analysis is made in the same way as for "official samples."
101. Is there not an undue amount of "red tape" in drawing these "farmers' samples?"
- It would seem so, but it should be remembered that the manufacturers have thousands of dollars invested in costly plants, and the law must protect them against fraud, as well as protect the purchaser. It must be equally fair to both parties.
102. Do the Chemists who analyze the fertilizers find many fertilizers that do not come up to the guarantee?
- No. Last fertilizer year, ending June 30, '10, out of 965 samples analyzed, 850 were of the grade claimed for them, 96 were of a higher grade
- than claimed, and only 19 fell below the grade claimed.
103. What use then is the inspection and the analysis?
- If it were not for the analysis, South Carolina would be made a dumping ground for fertilizers that could not be sold in states having an inspection law. If there were no violations even, it would be the strongest possible evidence of the desirability of an inspection law, because it would indicate that the law was efficient to protect the farmers in their purchases of fertilizers.
104. Do manufacturers residing in South Carolina have to pay an inspection tax on fertilizers sold outside the State?
- They do, if the laws of the State in which they are sold require it, but Clemson gets no benefit from the tax on fertilizers manufactured in the State but sold outside of South Carolina.